Ganoderma lucidum is actually a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore powder and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The final results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also referred to as Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is among most often used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and scientific studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in the fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The present study examined the antitumor activity of a blend of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which had been taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression has been associated with several human malignancies and is the objective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In the event that topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study indicated that the active components of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The current study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were supplied by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to get ready solutions of varied concentrations, that were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil was a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of ganoderma lucidum spore oil were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the impact of Ganoderma on tumors has been increasingly studied. The current study said that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the development of the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since olden days, Ganoderma continues to be commonly used as a popular herbal medicine for the promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain impact on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of many aspects of Ganoderma extract is a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). Because there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) in the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident effect on immunity. The current study also established that the antitumor outcomes of Ganoderma may be safer in contrast to 5-FU, which led to the decreased bodyweight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To analyze the possible mechanism of Agaricus Blazei Extract, the consequences of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and also the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes active in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the level of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Both of these activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, once the DNA helix must be unwound to enable proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy takes advantage of this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. As an example, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, such as doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.